Indigenous Patterns

Title Location Description
Agricultural valley Kel Independent small village towns are clustered on gradual slopes. It makes them more self sufficient and create a fractal pattern
River border Kel Land is divided by river resulting in scattered settlement between both sides. It has thin cluster on steep slope of the mountain
One single main road Kel It is connecting muzaffarabad and kel and going towards taobat
Muddy rocky pathways Kel Muddy and rocky pathways, made by the locals to move about
Settlement on flat landscape Kel It is preferred to build on flat land
Crop land Kel I. Building area ii. Crops plantation area iii. Livestock shed
Identifiable neighbor–army zone Kel/ak/taobat Army’s influence in terms of security and infrastructure is vital
Neighbor boundary; loc–indian border Kel/ak/taobat Tension at loc often affects their daily lifestyle.
Muddy rocky winding pathways Kel/ak/taobat Access to mountains/plateau/highlands
Wooden suspension bridge Kel Suspension bridge; used by pedestrians and smaller vehicular transport.
Sacred places are respected Kel One imam bargah, two functional mosques, one darbar and graves
Water sources are sacred Taobat/kel It’s a common superstition to hide source from the people or else it will dry out
Cross waterways Kel Wooden planks are used to cross over naala’s
Boundaries x 4 Kel Road, tertiary roads, single entry, crops, river, vegetables and sacred places act as boundaries
Flat plateau Arang kel Settlement on flat regions; easier to build upon
Access from three sides Arang kel Wind flows from all sides; better ventilation
Protected vegetable patches Kel/ arang kel Fencing is done to avoid livestock ruining the vegetable crops
Tree trunk platform Arang kel Danga; used for drying grass.
Winding pathways – Arang kel They are used for climbing to the top of the mountain
Water channel aligned with houses Taobat They assist in water disposal and drainage
Water channel aligned with paths Kel/arang kel They assist in cleaning purposes; washing clothes, bathing
Ribbon cropping Kel Situated on the slope near river banks and beside road sides as a sign of privacy
Hierarchal land use Kel Clustered poor families and rich scattered families
Public toilets over water ways Taobat Help in waste discharge
Mosque and school as communal areas Kel/ak/taobat It is used for jirga decisions and local congregations.
Communal graveyard Taobat This was an old practice
Decorated grave posts Kel/ak/taobat They are used as landmarks for the graves
Summer migration Kel/ak/taobat Livestock taken to highlands for grazing
Chimney top – wind Kel/ak/taobat It is protruding out from the pitched roofs. Mostly covered in summers
Graves alongside pathways Kel Easy access to visit graves.
Clustered housing Taobat Cliff on one side and river on the other. Less space to be built upon.
Seasonal construction Kel/ak/taobat External part is constructed in summers while the inside is mostly worked on in winters
  Local bazaar
Square shop fronts Kel Compact space
Knee level counter Kel They use stools to sit upon, which are of low height
Stepped up shops Kel Elevated from road level
Triared façade Kel Mostly no glass used.2 window 1 door
Sitting space inside shops Kel Usage of bench in every shop
Verandas infront of shops Kel 3′ wide, used as a sitting space
Benches in shop verandahs Used in winters to sit in the sun. Gathering space
Friendly shops Kel The shops have benches for the customers to sit, these are also mtg places.sitting space, shop owner, storage
Foldable shutters Kel Towards road, no glass used in windows
Frontal access Kel Only front. No side entrances.
Villiage shops balconies Taobat It is used as a common sitting area used by shopkeepers and local customers
External stairs Kel Stairs are extended externally to access the first floor. No shops on first floor.
Three tiered construction Kel 3 levels; one residential, one for livestock and one for crop cultivation
Use of available material Kel Locally used wood, stone, mud.
Rubble masonry ground floor Kel Rubble masonry is used for ground floor, wood is used for the second floor
Pitched roofs Kel Single pitched corrogated steel sheet roofs
Warm entrance Kel Pedestrian access to front and back
Narrow stairs Kel Stone, wooden log, wooden planks, wall supported, self-contained
Large chimney Kel It has a multipurpose use i.e. Heating the inner environment and cooking.
Spacious cooking space Kel It is used for cooking and as a informal “mehman khana”
Verandas as formal space Kel They are used for as “formal mehman khana” and as a sitting space.
Internal service shaft Kel Used for feeding animals during winter, from attic to the ground floor, it is used to access the attic/storage area in winters
Diagonal member joineries Kel Forming a vertex at one point
Beam hangers Kel Grass is hanged on beams to dry upon
Seperate washroom units Kel New trend enhances good ventilation due to higher surface area
Piped water Kel/ak/taobat From chashma source (jinn story associated)
Sewerage into water channels Kel Common practice to recycle waste into their crop lands.
Decorated balconies Kel Ornamentation, aesthetically pleasing.
River facing fronts Kel/taobat It is commonly practiced for good light and better ventilation
Leeward oriented windows Kel Against the wind, protection from strong winds.
Interconnected corridors Kel Keeping the inner environment warm and easy access to all rooms.
Permanent cooking area Kel Compact fire place and cooking place
Crockery shelf Kel In the kitchen/lounge area, a decorative shelve is present that showcases crockery and cuttelry.
Movable angeethi Kel Medium sized in residential area; smaller in animal quarters/shelters
Varying window size Kel Mediium sized window for living quarteds and small size for animal shelter
Sacred prayer area Kel Wooden elevated janemaz used for prayer
Zen views from windows Taobat No use of decorative paintings. Natural views are cut out in the walls. It adds to the aesthetic beauty of their house.
Flat mud houses Kel Old practice. The flat roof is also used for drying grass in summers
Compact cooking space Kel New practice. Portable angeethi is used for cooking
Stand alone animal shelter Arang kel Avoiding heat and humidity to save wood
Multiple enterances Arang kel Several entrances to the house. Joint family system. Enhances privacy.
Squarish and rectangular verandas Arang kel Provides open space for leisure time, provides good light
Rooms attatched to entrance Arang kel Quick access to “mehman khaana”
Double pitched roof Arang kel Steel sheet roof
Separate alley entrance to toilet Arang kel For privacy and cleanliness and access for all including from memaan khana
Column beam corner joinery Arang kel 6′ gap between vertical member
Ballustrade bench Arang kel Wider space between columns due to less complex structures is used for hanging and drying clothes or also as benches
Spacious attic access Arang kel It’s open to allow air form all sides, helping grass to dry out
4” thick vertical members Arang kel Stable and feasible to build from the tree trunks
Drying grass Kel Drying grass alongside walls, along tree trunks, around columns, hanging from beams, resting on benches
Varying ceiling heights Arang kel 8′-10′ for humans; 7′ animals; 12′ attic
Balconies are women’s spaces Kel They usually use it during their free time for talking and gazing into the fields.
Dhandoora in attic Kel Honey storage
Paitee Kel Storage of fancy things kept under lock and key
Wide verandas Taobat They act as sitting areas for their family and performing daily actvity as it has good natural light
Wet areas located at the rear Taobat Washing dishes, washing clothes, toilet
Middle corridor Taobat For privacy and giving access to all rooms
Four rooms alongside the corridor Taobat Linear and symmetrical design practice. It helps and easy and quick access in a compact space
West facing kitchens Taobat bala It maximizes the natural light inlet and some heat as well.
Trap doors Taobat Access to attic(grass storage) and animal space
2” wide decorarted trimming Kel/taobat Decorative borders used for ornamentation
4” thick wooden walls Kel/ak/taobat First floor
Wooden log walls Kel/ak/taobat Ground floor
Mud plastered internal spaces Kel/ak/taobat For insulation
Earthquake resistant construction Kel Commonly known as “dajji dewari”- wooden frame and stone infill.
Bunker spaces Taobat Safety and security due to loc
Narrow windows on windward side Taobat Protection from strong and cold winds/breezes
Entrance is highlighted Taobat It acts as a welcoming and distinct entry to their house
1′ deep water pipes Taobat To avoid water from freezing
Dhandoora at ground floor Taobat It is used for bee farming, providing protection from external environment factors
Food storage pits Taobat Storing food for winter. Pit is made in the soil
Deodar wood for fireplace Taobat Used for construction, less smoke
Kail wood construction Kel Easily available and to used for construction
Soakpit Taobat 6′-8′ deep
Covered stairwell access Taobat It protects from snowfall. External sheds provide shelter.
Corridor on three sides Kel/arang kel New trend
Gaghar used for storing water Arang kel Utensil to store water