|Independent small village towns are clustered on gradual slopes. It makes them more self sufficient and create a fractal pattern
|Land is divided by river resulting in scattered settlement between both sides. It has thin cluster on steep slope of the mountain
|One single main road
|It is connecting muzaffarabad and kel and going towards taobat
|Muddy rocky pathways
|Muddy and rocky pathways, made by the locals to move about
|Settlement on flat landscape
|It is preferred to build on flat land
|I. Building area ii. Crops plantation area iii. Livestock shed
|Identifiable neighbor–army zone
|Army’s influence in terms of security and infrastructure is vital
|Neighbor boundary; loc–indian border
|Tension at loc often affects their daily lifestyle.
|Muddy rocky winding pathways
|Access to mountains/plateau/highlands
|Wooden suspension bridge
|Suspension bridge; used by pedestrians and smaller vehicular transport.
|Sacred places are respected
|One imam bargah, two functional mosques, one darbar and graves
|Water sources are sacred
|It’s a common superstition to hide source from the people or else it will dry out
|Wooden planks are used to cross over naala’s
|Boundaries x 4
|Road, tertiary roads, single entry, crops, river, vegetables and sacred places act as boundaries
|Settlement on flat regions; easier to build upon
|Access from three sides
|Wind flows from all sides; better ventilation
|Protected vegetable patches
|Kel/ arang kel
|Fencing is done to avoid livestock ruining the vegetable crops
|Tree trunk platform
|Danga; used for drying grass.
|Winding pathways –
|They are used for climbing to the top of the mountain
|Water channel aligned with houses
|They assist in water disposal and drainage
|Water channel aligned with paths
|They assist in cleaning purposes; washing clothes, bathing
|Situated on the slope near river banks and beside road sides as a sign of privacy
|Hierarchal land use
|Clustered poor families and rich scattered families
|Public toilets over water ways
|Help in waste discharge
|Mosque and school as communal areas
|It is used for jirga decisions and local congregations.
|This was an old practice
|Decorated grave posts
|They are used as landmarks for the graves
|Livestock taken to highlands for grazing
|Chimney top – wind
|It is protruding out from the pitched roofs. Mostly covered in summers
|Graves alongside pathways
|Easy access to visit graves.
|Cliff on one side and river on the other. Less space to be built upon.
|External part is constructed in summers while the inside is mostly worked on in winters
|Square shop fronts
|Knee level counter
|They use stools to sit upon, which are of low height
|Stepped up shops
|Elevated from road level
|Mostly no glass used.2 window 1 door
|Sitting space inside shops
|Usage of bench in every shop
|Verandas infront of shops
|3′ wide, used as a sitting space
|Benches in shop verandahs
|Used in winters to sit in the sun. Gathering space
|The shops have benches for the customers to sit, these are also mtg places.sitting space, shop owner, storage
|Towards road, no glass used in windows
|Only front. No side entrances.
|Villiage shops balconies
|It is used as a common sitting area used by shopkeepers and local customers
|Stairs are extended externally to access the first floor. No shops on first floor.
|Three tiered construction
|3 levels; one residential, one for livestock and one for crop cultivation
|Use of available material
|Locally used wood, stone, mud.
|Rubble masonry ground floor
|Rubble masonry is used for ground floor, wood is used for the second floor
|Single pitched corrogated steel sheet roofs
|Pedestrian access to front and back
|Stone, wooden log, wooden planks, wall supported, self-contained
|It has a multipurpose use i.e. Heating the inner environment and cooking.
|Spacious cooking space
|It is used for cooking and as a informal “mehman khana”
|Verandas as formal space
|They are used for as “formal mehman khana” and as a sitting space.
|Internal service shaft
|Used for feeding animals during winter, from attic to the ground floor, it is used to access the attic/storage area in winters
|Diagonal member joineries
|Forming a vertex at one point
|Grass is hanged on beams to dry upon
|Seperate washroom units
|New trend enhances good ventilation due to higher surface area
|From chashma source (jinn story associated)
|Sewerage into water channels
|Common practice to recycle waste into their crop lands.
|Ornamentation, aesthetically pleasing.
|River facing fronts
|It is commonly practiced for good light and better ventilation
|Leeward oriented windows
|Against the wind, protection from strong winds.
|Keeping the inner environment warm and easy access to all rooms.
|Permanent cooking area
|Compact fire place and cooking place
|In the kitchen/lounge area, a decorative shelve is present that showcases crockery and cuttelry.
|Medium sized in residential area; smaller in animal quarters/shelters
|Varying window size
|Mediium sized window for living quarteds and small size for animal shelter
|Sacred prayer area
|Wooden elevated janemaz used for prayer
|Zen views from windows
|No use of decorative paintings. Natural views are cut out in the walls. It adds to the aesthetic beauty of their house.
|Flat mud houses
|Old practice. The flat roof is also used for drying grass in summers
|Compact cooking space
|New practice. Portable angeethi is used for cooking
|Stand alone animal shelter
|Avoiding heat and humidity to save wood
|Several entrances to the house. Joint family system. Enhances privacy.
|Squarish and rectangular verandas
|Provides open space for leisure time, provides good light
|Rooms attatched to entrance
|Quick access to “mehman khaana”
|Double pitched roof
|Steel sheet roof
|Separate alley entrance to toilet
|For privacy and cleanliness and access for all including from memaan khana
|Column beam corner joinery
|6′ gap between vertical member
|Wider space between columns due to less complex structures is used for hanging and drying clothes or also as benches
|Spacious attic access
|It’s open to allow air form all sides, helping grass to dry out
|4” thick vertical members
|Stable and feasible to build from the tree trunks
|Drying grass alongside walls, along tree trunks, around columns, hanging from beams, resting on benches
|Varying ceiling heights
|8′-10′ for humans; 7′ animals; 12′ attic
|Balconies are women’s spaces
|They usually use it during their free time for talking and gazing into the fields.
|Dhandoora in attic
|Storage of fancy things kept under lock and key
|They act as sitting areas for their family and performing daily actvity as it has good natural light
|Wet areas located at the rear
|Washing dishes, washing clothes, toilet
|For privacy and giving access to all rooms
|Four rooms alongside the corridor
|Linear and symmetrical design practice. It helps and easy and quick access in a compact space
|West facing kitchens
|It maximizes the natural light inlet and some heat as well.
|Access to attic(grass storage) and animal space
|2” wide decorarted trimming
|Decorative borders used for ornamentation
|4” thick wooden walls
|Wooden log walls
|Mud plastered internal spaces
|Earthquake resistant construction
|Commonly known as “dajji dewari”- wooden frame and stone infill.
|Safety and security due to loc
|Narrow windows on windward side
|Protection from strong and cold winds/breezes
|Entrance is highlighted
|It acts as a welcoming and distinct entry to their house
|1′ deep water pipes
|To avoid water from freezing
|Dhandoora at ground floor
|It is used for bee farming, providing protection from external environment factors
|Food storage pits
|Storing food for winter. Pit is made in the soil
|Deodar wood for fireplace
|Used for construction, less smoke
|Kail wood construction
|Easily available and to used for construction
|Covered stairwell access
|It protects from snowfall. External sheds provide shelter.
|Corridor on three sides
|Gaghar used for storing water
|Utensil to store water